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Citing Sources

#citations #citing #references

Miscellaneous Online Communications

BLOGS

APA (7th) General Format Not addressed by APA outside of individual posts. 
APA (7th) Example  
MLA (9th) General Format Blogger Last Name, Blogger First Name. Title of Blog. Year(s), URL.  
MLA (9th) Example Hibner, Holly et al. Awful Library Books. 2013-2017. awfullibrarybooks.net/.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style General format Blogs can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 16.2.3), though you may chooses to treat them as articles from webpages. See: http://libguides.cbu.edu/citing/webpages for examples.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style Example n/a
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style General Format Blogs can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 18.2.2), though you may chooses to treat them as articles from webpages. See: http://libguides.cbu.edu/citing/webpages for examples.
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style Example n/a

 

BLOG POSTINGS

APA (7th) General Format Author Last Name, Author First Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog entry. Title of Blog. URL
APA (7th) Example Hibner, H.  (2015, July 14). Will the Soviet Union survive? Awful Library Books. http://awfullibrarybooks.net/will-the-soviet-union-survive/
MLA (9th) General Format Blogger Last Name, Blogger First Name. "Title of Blog Entry." Title of Blog, Day Month Year, Direct URL. 
MLA (9th) Example Hibner, Holly. "Will the Soviet Union Survive?" Awful Library Books, 14 July 2015, awfullibrarybooks.net/will-the-soviet-union-survive/.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style General format Blog postings can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 16.2.3), though you may chooses to treat them as articles from webpages. See: http://libguides.cbu.edu/citing/webpages for examples.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style Example

n/a

Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style General Format Blog postings can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 18.2.2), though you may chooses to treat them as articles from webpages. See: http://libguides.cbu.edu/citing/webpages for examples.
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style Example n/a
 
 

COMMENTS

APA (7th) General Format Commenter's handle. (Year, Month Day). Title of Comment OR First 20 words of comment [Comment on the blog post "Blog post title"]. Name of blog. URL
APA (7th) Example Robert. (2021, August 20). I get at least one phone call a week about taking on a complete collection of Architectural Digest. Sadly nobody [Comment on the blog post "American Heritage"]. Awful Library Books. https://awfullibrarybooks.net/american-heritage/
MLA (9th) General Format Commenter's handle. Comment on "Title of Article or Blog Entry." Title of Blog or Site, Day Month Year, time comment was made. Direct URL.
MLA (9th) Example Robert. Comment on "American Heritage." Awful Library Books, 20 August 2021, 3:56 p.m. awfullibrarybooks.net/american-heritage/.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style General format Comments can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 16.2.3).
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style Example n/a
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style General Format Comments can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 18.2.2).
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style Example n/a

 

TWEETS

APA (7th) General Format Group Name or Author Last Name, Author Initial (if known). [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of tweet [Tweet]. URL.
APA (7th) Example [@krissbaird]. (2017, July 11). We came, we saw, we met #LarrytheCat. [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/krissbaird/status/888433038723612672.
MLA (9th) General Format Group Name or Author First Name Last Name. [@handle]. "Text of tweet." Twitter, Day Month Year, URL.
MLA (9th) Example [@krissbaird]. "We came, we saw, we met #LarrytheCat." Twitter, 21 July 2017, twitter.com/krissbaird/status/888433038723612672.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style General Format Postings to social media can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 16.2.3).
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style Example n/a
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style General Format Postings to social media can be omitted from Bibliographies (see Turabian 18.2.2).
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style Example n/a

 

EMAILS

APA (7th) General Format not addressed by APA (but see "personal communication" instructions, in certain cases)
APA (7th) Example n/a
MLA (9th) General Format Email Sender. Email to Recipient First Name Recipient Last Name, Day Month Year.
MLA (9th) Example Coursera Staff. Email to Kay Cunningham. 17 June 2014.
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style General Format Cite emails in footnotes or in text (See Turabian 17.6.2).
Turabian (9th) Notes-Bibliography Style Example

In an email message from Coursera Staff on June 17, 2014 ... .

OR

1. Coursera Staff, email message to author, June 17, 2014.

Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style General Format Cite emails in text or in parenthetical citations (See Turabian 19.6.2).
Turabian (9th) Author-Date Style Example

In an email message from Coursera Staff on June 17, 2014 ... .

OR

(Coursera Staff, email message to author, June 17, 2014).


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