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Citing Sources

#citations #citing #references

In-Text Parenthetical Citations - Format & Examples

Use this format when citing references WITHIN THE TEXT of your paper.

Within the text of my paper, how do I cite:

  • a basic reference?
  • using the author's name within a sentence?

BASIC REFERENCE

APA General Format Give the (Author Lastname, year of publication). For direct quotations, give the (Author Lastname, year of publication, p. #).
APA Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilities tend to be the happiest" (Levine, 1976, p. 222).
MLA General Format Give the (Author Lastname page#).
MLA Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilities tend to be the happiest" (Levine 222).
Turabian Author-Date Style General Format Give the (Author Lastname year of publication, page#).
Turabian Author-Date Style Example Studies have found that "marriages in which the parents share responsibilities tend to be the happiest" (Levine 1976, 222).

 

AUTHOR'S NAME IN TEXT

APA General Format Give the (year of publication) immediately after the author's name. For direct quotations, also list the page number at the end of the sentence as (p. #).
APA Example Levine (1976) writes that the happiest marriages are those where parents share responsibilities.
MLA General Format Give the (page#).
MLA Example Levine reports that parents with shared responsibilities have the happiest marriages (222).
Turabian Author-Date Style General Format Give the (Year, page#).
Turabian Author-Date Style Example  According to Levine, parents who share responsibilities tend to have the happiest marriages (1976, 222).
 

 

Footnote Citations

When using Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style, you should use footnotes or endnotes instead of in-text parenthetical citations.

FOOTNOTE/ENDNOTE CITATIONS

Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style General Format for Books Author First Name Last Name, Title of Book: Subtitle of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page#.
Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style Example for Books Markus Zusak, The Book Thief (New York: Knopf, 2006), 43.
Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style General Format for Journal Articles Author First Name Last Name, "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article," Title of Journal volume#, no. issue# (Month Year): page#.
Turabian Notes-Bibliography Style Example for Journal Articles Siripong Malasri et al. "Water Absorption of Wooden Pallets," International Journal of Applied Science and Technology 2, no. 9 (November 2012): 3.

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