Principles of fair use allow individuals to make single copies of copyrighted works for their own research and study or to use copyrighted material in the classroom for presentations or assignments. These principles also allow faculty to make multiple copies of copyrighted material for use in classroom instruction. However, if that same material were placed on a website, used in a newsletter, or mounted to social media, permission from the copyright holder would be required. Without permission, such actions are infringements and potentially subject to civil and criminal charges.
There are no hard-and-fast rules about what constitutes fair use. Determining whether the use of copyrighted material is fair or an infringement requires individual evaluation, particularly in relation to the following four factors:
1. Purpose and character of the use
2. Nature of copyrighted work
3. Amount and substantiality of portion used
4. Effect of the use on the potential market for the copyrighted work
An addition consideration for faculty is the timeliness of their need to use the material.
A Note on "special works"...